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How Big Is The State Of Maryland

The University of Maryland Medical System (UMMS) was created in when Honoring our Baltimore heritage while embracing our statewide commitment. The University of Maryland School of Public Health (SPH) works to. Viruses in small, airborne particles called aerosols can infect people at both close and long range. Join CEEJH Lab and MD state and county officials this Saturday (9/26). Annapolis, MD: Maryland State Archives, Sobel, Robert, and John Raimo, eds. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, , Vol​.

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EIN: | baltimore, MD, US big talk aau american federation of state county & municipal employees (lmd md state parole probation e). With extensive research and. Die Big Ten Conference ist eine der ältesten Ligen des Universitätssports in den USA. State University, die University of Nebraska-Lincoln und die University of Maryland, College Park und die Rutgers University beitraten. Als Penn State in den frühen ern beitrat, entschied man, den Namen Big Ten. United States at the University of Maryland, and by the Government [. Link zur Maryland-Seite, die unter Public Atlases als Maryland Statewide aufgeführt ist). Annapolis, MD: Maryland State Archives, Sobel, Robert, and John Raimo, eds. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, , Vol​. CIO for the State of Maryland responsible for information technology, data Intelligence and providing counsel to entrepreneurs in enterprises big and small. The University of Maryland Medical System (UMMS) was created in when Honoring our Baltimore heritage while embracing our statewide commitment. Project: Long Term Monitoring of Western Maryland Watersheds predominantly forested watersheds (Big Run and Black Lick) in Savage River State Forest.

How Big Is The State Of Maryland

Project: Long Term Monitoring of Western Maryland Watersheds predominantly forested watersheds (Big Run and Black Lick) in Savage River State Forest. EIN: | baltimore, MD, US big talk aau american federation of state county & municipal employees (lmd md state parole probation e). With extensive research and. Maryland ist als Old Line State, Free State und Chesapeake Bay State bekannt. Friday, Sep 18 Maryland Terrapins Football Big Ten Voting on Return Soon. How Big Is The State Of Maryland In Transfermarkt.De Sportwetten Puritans revolted against Ronnie O Sullivan Masters proprietary government. Most of the Paysafe Telefon of Maryland lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore metropolitan area and Washington metropolitan areaboth of which are part of the Baltimore—Washington metropolitan area. In the city, the population was spread out, with Power in Maryland is divided among three branches Othello Spiel government: executivelegislativeand judicial. In addition, Hoyer served as House Minority Whip from to and to Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Featured Free Play Casino Bonus. The tracks were eventually dismantled in Retrieved April 9, The Henry J.

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What does Maryland have? Asked By Wiki User. Cookie Policy. Contact Us. IP Issues. Consumer Choice. Terms of Use. The Weather Channel.

Houghton Mifflin. Mary's County". Archived from the original on March 22, In Beckert, Seth; Rockman, Seth eds.

Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania. Merchants and Revolution London:Verso. University of Chicago Press.

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The Civil War Months. Walter Coffey. Retrieved July 7, April 18, Eagle Tribune. Archived from the original on April 19, Retrieved April 28, September 29, Retrieved February 8, World Digital Library.

Retrieved July 22, Maryland Law Review. Legal History, Theory and Process Commons. UM Carey Law. Retrieved August 19, Retrieved March 9, Memorial Bay Bridge—History".

Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved February 5, Archived from the original on November 18, Retrieved December 24, February 7, Retrieved February 7, United States Census Bureau.

Archived from the original on December 12, Retrieved December 5, League of the South. Archived from the original on June 5, Retrieved May 23, On the other hand, areas beyond these thirteen States maintain their Southern culture to varying degrees.

Much of Missouri remains basically Southern, as do parts of southern Maryland and Maryland's eastern shore.

Kentucky, Missouri, West Virginia and Maryland—slaveholding states and regions before the Civil War that did not secede from the Union—are also often included as part of the South.

As border states, these states always were crossroads of values and customs, and today parts of Maryland seem to have become part of the "Northeast.

American Memory. The Library of Congress. Retrieved August 11, Environmental Protection Agency. Federal Bureau of Investigation. National Railroad Passenger Corporation.

The Princeton Review. The Plain Dealer. National Vital Statistics Reports. National Center for Health Statistics.

January 15, December 23, January 5, January 31, November 7, November 27, Retrieved September 14, Retrieved September 3, July 1, Retrieved November 6, Archived from the original on July 25, Archived from the original on February 7, Retrieved January 14, Retrieved April 18, Archived from the original on January 11, English Foundation, Inc.

Archived from the original PDF on January 17, Retrieved May 22, October 17, Associated Press at The Southeast Missourian. October 23, Retrieved on August 25, Greater Greater Washington.

Archived from the original on February 12, May 23, Archived from the original on June 6, Retrieved June 11, Mary's College of Maryland online magazine.

Spring Archived from the original on July 14, Celtic Society of Southern Maryland. Retrieved July 5, NBC News. Associated Press.

August 18, Retrieved December 7, Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved December 23, Freedom to Marry. Retrieved July 25, Center for American Progress.

Religious Landscape Study. Retrieved October 5, Archived from the original on December 2, Retrieved November 15, Amish America.

Retrieved October 6, Archived from the original Excel on March 27, Jewish Federation of Greater Washington.

Retrieved February 28, Retrieved on July 12, Retrieved July 16, Retrieved January 21, Maryland Department of Labor, License, and Governing.

April 5, Army Corps of Engineers. Waterborne Commerce Statistics Center. New Orleans, LA. Ports in Automotive Logistics Buyers' Guide. Ultima Media.

Archived from the original on May 25, The Port of Baltimore handles more autos than any other US port. Water Ports, Ranked by Total Tons".

Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 2, March 11, Philadelphia, PA: U.

The Maryland Biotechnology Center. Archived from the original on August 20, April 21, Retrieved August 29, August 30, Mary's City: St.

Mary's City is an archaeological jewel on Maryland's Western Shore". Retrieved February 18, American Medical Association.

Retrieved June 15, Retrieved July 23, Retrieved June 5, Maryland Department of Transportation. Retrieved on March 23, September 12, Archived from the original on July 27, Humphreys: First Military Pilot".

December 9, Retrieved November 23, Jacksonville, FL Baltimore, MD. Retrieved April 9, Archived from the original on September 20, Retrieved September 22, Archived from the original on July 7, Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved June 12, New York: Fordham University Press.

Maryland State Board of Elections. August Steny Hoyer. Archived from the original on September 7, The State Board of Elections. State of Maryland.

Retrieved September 29, Public Policy Polling. May 24, Retrieved August 16, Maryland State Department of Education. Retrieved on March 22, The Gazette.

October 30, Archived from the original on September 4, Retrieved November 12, Leads U. Archived from the original on May 6, Retrieved November 7, University of Maryland, Baltimore.

Baltimore Business Journal. Retrieved May 16, The Hechinger Report. Retrieved February 26, May 16, Retrieved March 16, Retrieved December 6, September 30, Brugger, Robert J.

Maryland, A Middle Temperament: — Chappelle, Susan Ellery Green; et al. Maryland: A History of its People. Davis, William Wilkins.

Wilkins Davis. Foreword by Charles W. Denton, Lawrence M. A Southern Star for Maryland. Baltimore: Publishing Concepts. Marsh, Carole Gallopade International.

Maryland at Wikipedia's sister projects. Annapolis capital. Seal of Maryland. Northeastern United States.

Culture Geography Government History. Waterbury Wilmington Worcester. Thirteen Colonies. Other British colonial entities in the contemporary United States.

Non-British colonial entities in the contemporary United States. Political divisions of the United States. Washington, D. Virgin Islands. Federal enclave.

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Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikinews Wikivoyage. Flag Seal. Anthem: " Maryland, My Maryland ".

Map of the United States with Maryland highlighted. April 28, [5] 7th [5]. Baltimore-Washington Metro Area. Larry Hogan R. Boyd Rutherford R.

General Assembly of Maryland. House of Delegates of Maryland. Maryland Court of Appeals. Flag of Maryland. Baltimore checkerspot butterfly.

Calico cat Chesapeake Bay Retriever Thoroughbred horse. Astrodon johnstoni. Blue crab Smith Island Cake. Ecphora gardnerae gardnerae. Jousting Lacrosse.

Released in Lists of United States state symbols. Source: — [89] estimate [90]. American Indian.

Hispanic of any race. Baltimore Columbia. Independent city. Germantown Silver Spring. Archived from the original on October 25, Census website".

United States Census Bureau. Census Bureau. State of Maryland. Annapolis capital. Seal of Maryland.

Lists of United States counties and county equivalents. District of Columbia. Virgin Islands. United States Minor Outlying Islands.

Categories : Maryland counties Lists of counties of the United States by state Maryland geography-related lists. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Featured lists.

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Wikimedia Commons. Counties only : 20, Kent — 1,, Montgomery. County government.

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Maryland has an area of 12, The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia , is almost twice the size of Maryland [24, Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature.

It ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to gently rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region , and pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west.

Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania , on its west by West Virginia , on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean , and on its south, across the Potomac River , by West Virginia and Virginia.

The mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia , which sits on land that was originally part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.

The Commonwealth of Virginia gave land south of the Potomac, including the town of Alexandria, Virginia , however Virginia retroceded its portion in The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore.

Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County drained by the Youghiogheny River as part of the watershed of the Mississippi River , the eastern half of Worcester County which drains into Maryland's Atlantic coastal bays , and a small portion of the state's northeast corner which drains into the Delaware River watershed.

So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname that has been used by Massachusetts for decades.

Close to the small town of Hancock , in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state, less than 2 miles 3. Portions of Maryland are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions.

For example, the Delmarva Peninsula is composed of the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the entire state of Delaware , and the two counties that make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia , whereas the westernmost counties of Maryland are considered part of Appalachia.

Much of the Baltimore—Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, [24] though it straddles the border between the two regions.

Buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. Maryland has no natural lakes, mostly due to the lack of glacial history in the area.

Maryland has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible. As is typical of states on the East Coast , Maryland's plant life is abundant and healthy.

Middle Atlantic coastal forests , typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain , grow around Chesapeake Bay and on the Delmarva Peninsula.

Moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mixed forests cover the central part of the state.

These give way to Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests near the West Virginia border. Many foreign species are cultivated in the state, some as ornamentals, others as novelty species.

Included among these are the crape myrtle , Italian cypress , southern magnolia , live oak in the warmer parts of the state, [34] and even hardy palm trees in the warmer central and eastern parts of the state.

The state harbors a great number of white-tailed deer , especially in the woody and mountainous west of the state, and overpopulation can become a problem.

Mammals can be found ranging from the mountains in the west to the central areas and include black bears , [38] bobcats , [39] foxes, coyotes , [40] raccoons, and otters.

There is a population of rare wild feral horses found on Assateague Island. The purebred Chesapeake Bay Retriever dog was bred specifically for water sports, hunting and search and rescue in the Chesapeake area.

Maryland's reptile and amphibian population includes the diamondback terrapin turtle, which was adopted as the mascot of University of Maryland, College Park , as well as the threatened Eastern box turtle.

The state insect is the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly , although it is not as common in Maryland as it is in the southern edge of its range. Maryland joined with neighboring states during the end of the 20th century to improve the health of the Chesapeake Bay.

The bay's aquatic life and seafood industry have been threatened by development and by fertilizer and livestock waste entering the bay. In , Forbes.

Maryland ranks 40th in total energy consumption nationwide, and it managed less toxic waste per capita than all but six states in Vermont has such a law, but no shale gas, and New York has such a ban, though it was made by executive order.

Maryland has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to water, and protection from colder weather due to downslope winds.

The eastern half of Maryland—which includes the cities of Ocean City , Salisbury , Annapolis , and the southern and eastern suburbs of Washington, D.

This region has a humid subtropical climate Köppen Cfa , with hot, humid summers and a short, mild to cool winter; it falls under USDA Hardiness zone 8a.

From the Cumberland Valley on westward, the climate begins to transition to a humid continental climate Köppen Dfa. In western Maryland, the higher elevations of Allegany and Garrett counties—including the cities of Cumberland , Frostburg , and Oakland —display more characteristics of the humid continental zone, due in part to elevation.

Precipitation in the state is characteristic of the East Coast. Nearly every part of Maryland receives 3. More often, Maryland gets the remnants of a tropical system which has already come ashore and released most of its energy.

Maryland averages around 30—40 days of thunderstorms a year, and averages around six tornado strikes annually. George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore — , sought a charter from King Charles I for the territory between Massachusetts to the north and Virginia to the immediate south.

The original capital of Maryland was St. Mary's County. Lord Baltimore's first settlers arrived in the new colony in March , with his younger brother Leonard Calvert — , as first provincial Governor of Maryland.

They made their first permanent settlement at St. Mary's City in what is now St. They purchased the site from the paramount chief of the region, who was eager to establish trade.

Mary's became the first capital of Maryland, and remained so for 60 years until More settlers soon followed. Their tobacco crops were successful and quickly made the new colony profitable.

However, given the incidence of malaria , yellow fever and typhoid , life expectancy in Maryland was about 10 years less than in New England.

Maryland was founded for the purpose of providing religious toleration of England's Roman Catholic minority. In a number of Puritans left Virginia for Maryland and founded Providence now called Annapolis on the western shore of the upper Chesapeake Bay.

The two years from to when Claiborne and his Puritan associates held sway were known as "The Plundering Time". They captured Jesuit priests, imprisoned them, then sent them back to England.

In Leonard Calvert returned with troops, recaptured St. Mary's City, and restored order. The House of Delegates passed the "Act concerning Religion" in granting religious liberty to all Trinitarian Christians.

In the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government. The Puritan revolutionary government persecuted Maryland Catholics during its reign, known as the "plundering time".

Mobs burned down all the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland. The Puritan rule lasted until when the Calvert family and Lord Baltimore regained proprietary control and re-enacted the Toleration Act.

In , the Maryland General Assembly prohibited Catholics from operating schools, limited the corporate ownership of property to hamper religious orders from expanding or supporting themselves, and encouraged the conversion of Catholic children.

This state of affairs lasted until after the American Revolutionary War — Wealthy Catholic planters built chapels on their land to practice their religion in relative secrecy.

Into the 18th century, individual priests and lay leaders claimed Maryland farms belonging to the Jesuits as personal property and bequeathed them in order to evade the legal restrictions on religious organizations' owning property.

The royal charter granted Maryland the land north of the Potomac River up to the 40th parallel. A problem arose when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania.

The grant defined Pennsylvania's southern border as identical to Maryland's northern border, the 40th parallel.

But the grant indicated that Charles II and William Penn assumed the 40th parallel would pass close to New Castle, Delaware when it falls north of Philadelphia , the site of which Penn had already selected for his colony's capital city.

Negotiations ensued after the problem was discovered in A compromise proposed by Charles II in was undermined by Penn's receiving the additional grant of what is now Delaware.

The border dispute with Pennsylvania led to Cresap's War in the s. Hostilities erupted in and escalated through the first half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland in and by Pennsylvania in The armed phase of the conflict ended in May with the intervention of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a cease-fire.

A provisional agreement had been established in Negotiations continued until a final agreement was signed in The agreement defined the border between Maryland and Pennsylvania as the line of latitude now known as the Mason—Dixon line.

Most of the English colonists arrived in Maryland as indentured servants , and had to serve a several years' term as laborers to pay for their passage.

Mixed-race children born to white mothers were considered free by the principle of partus sequitur ventrem , by which children took the social status of their mothers, a principle of slave law that was adopted throughout the colonies, following Virginia in During the colonial era, families of free people of color were formed most often by unions of white women and African men.

Many of the free black families migrated to Delaware, where land was cheaper. The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco as the commodity crop.

Maryland was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. Near the end of the American Revolutionary War — , on February 2, , Maryland became the last and 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union , first proposed in and adopted by the Second Continental Congress in , which brought into being the United States as a united, sovereign and national state.

It also became the seventh state admitted to the Union after ratifying the new federal Constitution in In December , Maryland donated land selected by first President George Washington to the federal government for the creation of the new national capital of Washington, D.

The land was provided along the north shore of the Potomac River from Montgomery and Prince George's counties, as well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria on the south shore of the Potomac in Virginia ; however, the land donated by the Commonwealth of Virginia was later returned to that state by the District of Columbia retrocession in Influenced by a changing economy, revolutionary ideals, and preaching by ministers, numerous planters in Maryland freed their slaves in the 20 years after the Revolutionary War.

During this bombardment the song " Star Spangled Banner " was written by Francis Scott Key ; it was later adopted as the national anthem. The National Road U.

Hwy 40 today was authorized in and ran from Baltimore to St. Louis—the first federal highway. It opened its first section of track for regular operation in between Baltimore and Ellicott City, [78] and in it became the first rail line to reach the Ohio River from the eastern seaboard.

The state remained with the Union during the Civil War, [80] due in significant part to demographics and Federal intervention.

Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks suspended the state legislature, and to help ensure the election of a new pro-union governor and legislature, President Abraham Lincoln had a number of its pro-slavery politicians arrested, including the Mayor of Baltimore, George William Brown ; suspended several civil liberties, including habeas corpus ; and ordered artillery placed on Federal Hill overlooking Baltimore.

Historians debate the constitutionality of these wartime actions, and the suspension of civil liberties was later deemed illegal by the U.

Supreme Court. In April Federal units and state regiments were attacked as they marched through Baltimore, sparking the Baltimore riot of , the first bloodshed in the Civil War.

Although a tactical draw, the battle was considered a strategic Union victory and a turning point of the war.

A new state constitution in abolished slavery and Maryland was first recognized as a "Free State" in that context. The Democratic Party rapidly regained power in the state from Republicans.

Democrats replaced the Constitution of with the Constitution of Following the end of Reconstruction in , Democrats devised means of disfranchising blacks, initially by physical intimidation and voter fraud, later by constitutional amendments and laws.

Blacks and immigrants, however, resisted Democratic Party disfranchisement efforts in the state.

Compared to some other states, blacks were better established both before and after the civil war. Nearly half the black population was free before the war, and some had accumulated property.

Half the population lived in cities. Literacy was high among blacks and, as Democrats crafted means to exclude them, suffrage campaigns helped reach blacks and teach them how to resist.

Baltimore grew significantly during the Industrial Revolution , due in large part to its seaport and good railroad connections, attracting European immigrant labor.

Many manufacturing businesses were established in the Baltimore area after the Civil War. Baltimore businessmen, including Johns Hopkins , Enoch Pratt , George Peabody , and Henry Walters , founded notable city institutions that bear their names, including a university, library, music school and art museum.

Cumberland was Maryland's second-largest city in the 19th century. Nearby supplies of natural resources along with railroads fostered its growth into a major manufacturing center.

The Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought political reforms. In a series of laws passed between and , reformers worked for standard state-issued ballots rather than those distributed and marked by the parties ; obtained closed voting booths to prevent party workers from "assisting" voters; initiated primary elections to keep party bosses from selecting candidates; and had candidates listed without party symbols, which discouraged the illiterate from participating.

These measures worked against ill-educated whites and blacks. Blacks resisted such efforts, with suffrage groups conducting voter education.

Blacks defeated three efforts to disfranchise them, making alliances with immigrants to resist various Democratic campaigns. The Progressive Era also brought reforms in working conditions for Maryland's labor force.

In the state regulated conditions in mines ; outlawed child laborers under the age of 12; mandated compulsory school attendance; and enacted the nation's first workers' compensation law.

The workers' compensation law was overturned in the courts, but was redrafted and finally enacted in The Great Baltimore Fire of burned for more than 30 hours, destroying 1, buildings and spanning 70 city blocks.

More than 1, firefighters worked to bring the blaze under control. Existing facilities, including Fort McHenry , were greatly expanded. After Georgia congressman William D.

Upshaw criticized Maryland openly in for not passing Prohibition laws, Baltimore Sun editor Hamilton Owens coined the "Free State" nickname for Maryland in that context, which was popularized by H.

Mencken in a series of newspaper editorials. Maryland's urban and rural communities had different experiences during the Great Depression.

The " Bonus Army " marched through the state in on its way to Washington, D. Maryland instituted its first ever income tax in to generate revenue for schools and welfare.

Passenger and freight steamboat service, once important throughout Chesapeake Bay and its many tributary rivers, ended in Baltimore was a major war production center during World War II.

The biggest operations were Bethlehem Steel 's Fairfield Yard, which built Liberty ships ; and Glenn Martin , an aircraft manufacturer.

Maryland experienced population growth following World War II. Beginning in the s, as suburban growth took hold around Washington DC and Baltimore, the state began to take on a more mid-Atlantic culture as opposed to the traditionally Southern and Tidewater culture that previously dominated most of the state.

Agricultural tracts gave way to residential communities, some of them carefully planned such as Columbia , St. Charles , and Montgomery Village. Concurrently the Interstate Highway System was built throughout the state, most notably I , I , and the Capital Beltway , altering travel patterns.

In the eastern and western halves of Maryland were linked for the first time by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge , which replaced a nearby ferry service.

Maryland's regions experienced economic changes following WWII. Heavy manufacturing declined in Baltimore. In Maryland's four westernmost counties, industrial, railroad, and coal mining jobs declined.

On the lower Eastern Shore , family farms were bought up by major concerns and large-scale poultry farms and vegetable farming became prevalent.

In Southern Maryland, tobacco farming nearly vanished due to suburban development and a state tobacco buy-out program in the s.

In an effort to reverse depopulation due to the loss of working-class industries, Baltimore initiated urban renewal projects in the s with Charles Center and the Baltimore World Trade Center.

Some resulted in the break-up of intact residential neighborhoods, producing social volatility, and some older residential areas around the harbor have had units renovated and have become popular with new populations.

This includes a natural increase since the last census of , , births minus , deaths and an increase due to net migration of , people into the state.

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of , people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13, people.

The center of population of Maryland is located on the county line between Anne Arundel County and Howard County , in the unincorporated community of Jessup.

Maryland's history as a border state has led it to exhibit characteristics of both the Northern and the Southern regions of the United States.

As of , Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Spanish including Spanish Creole is the second most spoken language in Maryland, after English. The third and fourth most spoken languages are French including Patois and Cajun and Chinese.

Most of the population of Maryland lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore metropolitan area and Washington metropolitan area , both of which are part of the Baltimore—Washington metropolitan area.

The majority of Maryland's population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington, D. Maryland's capital city, Annapolis , is one exception to this pattern, since it lies along the banks of the Severn River , close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay.

The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western Maryland. The two westernmost counties of Maryland, Allegany and Garrett , are mountainous and sparsely populated, resembling West Virginia and Appalachia more than they do the rest of the state.

Southern Maryland is still somewhat rural, but suburbanization from Washington, D. In the Census Bureau reported Maryland's population as African Americans form a sizable portion of the state's population, nearly 30 percent in New residents of African descent include 20th-century and later immigrants from Nigeria , particularly of the Igbo and Yoruba tribes.

Many immigrants from the Horn of Africa have settled in Maryland, with large communities existing in the suburbs of Washington, D.

The Greater Washington area has the largest population of Ethiopians outside of Africa. Irish American populations can be found throughout the Baltimore area , [] and the Northern and Eastern suburbs of Washington D.

A large percentage of the population of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland are descendants of British American ancestry.

The Eastern Shore was settled by Protestants, chiefly Methodist and the southern counties were initially settled by English Catholics.

Western and northern Maryland have large German-American populations. More recent European immigrants of the late 19th and early 20th century settled first in Baltimore, attracted to its industrial jobs.

Many of their ethnic Italian , Polish , Czech , Lithuanian , and Greek descendants still live in the area. The shares of European immigrants born in Eastern Europe increased significantly between and Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia, many immigrants from Eastern Europe came to the United States—12 percent of whom currently reside in Maryland.

Salvadorans are the largest Hispanic group in Maryland. Other Hispanic groups with significant populations in the state include Mexicans and Puerto Ricans and Hondurans.

Though the Salvadoran population is more concentrated in the area around Washington, D. Maryland has one of the most diverse Hispanic populations in the country, with significant populations from various Caribbean and Central American nations.

Asian Americans are concentrated in the suburban counties surrounding Washington, D. Numerous Indian Americans live across the state, especially in central Maryland.

Attracting educated Asians and Africans to the professional jobs in the region, Maryland has the fifth-largest proportions of racial minorities in the country.

In , were counted as foreign born, which represents mainly people from Latin America and Asia. About four percent are undocumented immigrants.

According to The Williams Institute's analysis of the U. Census, 12, same-sex couples are living in Maryland, representing 5. As of , non-Hispanic white Americans were By , minorities are projected to become the majority of voting eligible residents of Maryland.

Maryland has been historically prominent to American Catholic tradition because the English colony of Maryland was intended by George Calvert as a haven for English Catholics.

Baltimore was the seat of the first Catholic bishop in the U. Elizabeth Ann Seton. Georgetown University , the first Catholic University, was founded in in what was then part of Maryland.

Among the immigrants of the 19th and 20th century from eastern and southern Europe were many Catholics.

Demographically, both Protestants and those identifying no religion are more numerous than Catholics. According to Pew Research Center , 69 percent of Maryland's population identifies themselves as Christian.

Mary's , Garrett , and Cecil counties. Two of Maryland's counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the second and eleventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively.

Maryland has the most millionaires per capita in , with a ratio of 7. As of February , the state's unemployment rate was 4.

Maryland's economy benefits from the state's close proximity to the federal government in Washington, D. In addition, a number of educational and medical research institutions are located in the state.

In fact, the various components of The Johns Hopkins University and its medical research facilities are now the largest single employer in the Baltimore area.

Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25 percent of Maryland's labor force , [ citation needed ] attributable in part to nearby Maryland being a part of the Washington Metro Area where the federal government office employment is relatively high.

Manufacturing, while large in dollar value, is highly diversified with no sub-sector contributing over 20 percent of the total.

Typical forms of manufacturing include electronics, computer equipment, and chemicals. The once mighty primary metals sub-sector, which at one time included what was then the largest steel factory in the world at Sparrows Point , still exists, but is pressed with foreign competition, bankruptcies , and mergers.

Mining other than construction materials is virtually limited to coal, which is located in the mountainous western part of the state.

The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore and Washington much of their characteristic architecture in the midth century, were once a predominant natural resource.

Historically, there used to be small gold-mining operations in Maryland, some near Washington, but these no longer exist.

One major service activity is transportation, centered on the Port of Baltimore and its related rail and trucking access. The port ranked 17th in the U.

The port also receives several different brands of imported motor vehicles and is the number one auto port in the U.

Baltimore City is among the top 15 largest ports in the nation, [] and was one of six major U. Its computer industries are some of the most sophisticated in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area.

Maryland is home to several large military bases and scores of high level government jobs. Maryland has a large food-production sector. A large component of this is commercial fishing , centered in the Chesapeake Bay, but also including activity off the short Atlantic seacoast.

The largest catches by species are the blue crab , oysters , striped bass , and menhaden. The Bay also has overwintering waterfowl in its wildlife refuges.

The waterfowl support a tourism sector of sportsmen. Maryland has large areas of fertile agricultural land in its coastal and Piedmont zones, though this land use is being encroached upon by urbanization.

Agriculture is oriented to dairy farming especially in foothill and piedmont areas for nearby large city milksheads plus specialty perishable horticulture crops, such as cucumbers , watermelons , sweet corn , tomatoes , muskmelons , squash , and peas Source:USDA Crop Profiles.

The southern counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay are warm enough to support a tobacco cash crop zone, which has existed since early Colonial times but declined greatly after a state government buyout in the s.

There is also a large automated chicken -farming sector in the state's southeastern part; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms.

Maryland's food-processing plants are the most significant type of manufacturing by value in the state. Maryland is a major center for life sciences research and development.

With more than biotechnology companies located there, Maryland is the fourth-largest nexus in this field in the United States. Maryland is home to defense contractor Emergent BioSolutions , which manufactures and provides an anthrax vaccine to U.

Tourism is popular in Maryland, with tourists visiting the city of Baltimore, the beaches of the Eastern Shore, and the nature of western Maryland, as well as many passing through on the way to Washington, D.

Ocean City on the Atlantic Coast has been a popular beach destination in summer, particularly since the Chesapeake Bay Bridge was built in connecting the Eastern Shore to the more populated Maryland cities.

Maryland also has several sites of interest to military history, given Maryland's role in the American Civil War and in the War of Other attractions include the historic and picturesque towns along the Chesapeake Bay , such as Saint Mary's , Maryland's first colonial settlement and original capital.

Maryland has experimented with healthcare payment reforms, notably beginning in the s with an all-payer rate setting program regulated by the Health Services Cost Review Commission.

The Maryland Department of Transportation oversees most transportation in the state through its various administration-level agencies. I , fully contained within Anne Arundel County and the shortest There are also several auxiliary Interstate highways in Maryland.

Among them are two beltways encircling the major cities of the region: I , the McKeldin Baltimore Beltway, which encircles Baltimore; and a portion of I , the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D.

I , which connects the Frederick area with Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia through major suburbs to the northwest of Washington, is a major commuter route and is as wide as fourteen lanes at points.

Construction of the ICC was a major part of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich , who was in office from until , and of Governor Martin O'Malley , who succeeded him.

The only other airports with commercial service are at Hagerstown and Salisbury. The Maryland suburbs of Washington, D. The College Park Airport is the nation's oldest, founded in , and is still used.

Wilbur Wright trained military aviators at this location. The WMATA 's Metrorail rapid transit and Metrobus local bus systems the 2nd and 6th busiest in the nation of their respective modes provide service in Montgomery and Prince George's counties and connect them to Washington D.

The Maryland Transit Administration often abbreviated as "MTA Maryland" , a state agency part of the Maryland Department of Transportation also provides transit services within the state.

Baltimore's Light RailLink and Metro SubwayLink systems serve its densely populated inner-city and the surrounding suburbs. The MTA also serves the city and its suburbs with its local bus service the 9th largest system in the nation.

Freight rail transport is handled principally by two Class I railroads , as well as several smaller regional and local carriers. Major rail yards are located in Baltimore and Cumberland, [] with an intermodal terminal rail, truck and marine in Baltimore.

The government of Maryland is conducted according to the state constitution. The government of Maryland, like the other 49 state governments , has exclusive authority over matters that lie entirely within the state's borders, except as limited by the Constitution of the United States.

Power in Maryland is divided among three branches of government: executive , legislative , and judicial. Maryland's governor is unique in the United States as the office is vested with significant authority in budgeting.

The legislature may not increase the governor's proposed budget expenditures. Unlike many other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland's counties.

Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis , the state capital. Elections for governor and most statewide offices, as well as most county elections, are held in midterm-election years even-numbered years not divisible by four.

The intermediate appellate court is known as the Court of Special Appeals and the state supreme court is the Court of Appeals.

The appearance of the judges of the Maryland Court of Appeals is unique; Maryland is the only state whose judges wear red robes.

Local officials set the rates and the revenue is returned to the local governments quarterly. The top income tax bracket of 9. Maryland's state sales tax is six percent.

Since before the Civil War, Maryland's elections have been largely controlled by the Democrats , which account for State elections are dominated by Baltimore and the populous suburban counties bordering Washington, D.

As of July , [] sixty-six percent of the state's population resides in these six jurisdictions, most of which contain large, traditionally Democratic voting bloc s : African Americans in Baltimore City and Prince George's, federal employees in Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and Montgomery, and postgraduates in Montgomery.

The remainder of the state, particularly Western Maryland and the Eastern Shore , is more supportive of Republicans.

In , Maryland was one of six states to vote for Jimmy Carter. In , former Governor Robert Ehrlich was the first Republican to be elected to that office in four decades, and after one term lost his seat to Baltimore Mayor and Democrat Martin O'Malley.

Ehrlich ran again for governor in , losing again to O'Malley. The election brought no change in the pattern of Democratic dominance.

Steele , with 55 percent of the vote, against Steele's 44 percent. While Republicans usually win more counties, by piling up large margins in the west and east, they are also usually swamped by the more densely populated and heavily Democratic Baltimore—Washington axis.

While McCain won most of the western and eastern counties by margins of 2-to-1 or more, he was almost completely shut out in the larger counties surrounding Baltimore and Washington; every large county except Anne Arundel went for Obama.

From to , U. In addition, Hoyer served as House Minority Whip from to and to Mary's counties in southern Maryland.

In , Republicans won control of most counties. The Democratic Party remained in control of eight county governments including Baltimore.

In , Hogan was reelected to a second term of office. In February , Attorney General Doug Gansler issued an opinion stating that Maryland law should honor same-sex marriages from out of state.

At the time, the state Supreme Court wrote a decision upholding marriage discrimination. On March 1, , Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley signed the freedom to marry bill into law after it passed in the state legislature.

Immediately after, opponents of same-sex marriage began collecting signatures to overturn the law. The law was scheduled to face a referendum, as Question 6, in the November election.

In May , Maryland's Court of Appeals ruled that the state will recognize marriages of same-sex couples who married out-of-state, no matter the outcome of the November election.

Same-sex couples began marrying in Maryland on January 1, A well known newspaper is The Baltimore Sun. The most populous areas are served by either Baltimore or Washington, D.

The Eastern Shore is served primarily by broadcast media based around the Delmarva Peninsula ; the northeastern section receives both Baltimore and Philadelphia stations.

Garrett County, which is mountainous, is served by stations from Pittsburgh , and requires cable or satellite for reception. Education Week ranked Maryland 1 in its nationwide — Quality Counts reports.

The Maryland General Assembly has given the Superintendent and State Board autonomy to make educationally related decisions, limiting its own influence on the day-to-day functions of public education.

Each county and county-equivalent in Maryland has a local Board of Education charged with running the public schools in that particular jurisdiction.

Maryland has a broad range of private primary and secondary schools. Many of these are affiliated with various religious sects, including parochial schools of the Catholic Church , Quaker schools, Seventh-day Adventist schools, and Jewish schools.

In , Maryland law was changed to allow for the creation of publicly funded charter schools, although the charter schools must be approved by their local Board of Education and are not exempt from state laws on education, including collective bargaining laws.

In , the state led the entire country in the percentage of students passing Advanced Placement examinations.

This marks the first year that Maryland earned this honor. Maryland has several historic and renowned private colleges and universities, the most prominent of which is Johns Hopkins University , founded in with a grant from Baltimore entrepreneur Johns Hopkins.

The first public university in the state is the University of Maryland, Baltimore , which was founded in and contains the University of Maryland's only public academic health , human services, and one of two law centers the other being the University of Baltimore School of Law.

Seven professional and graduate schools train the majority of the state's physicians, nurses, dentists, lawyers, social workers, and pharmacists.

Towson University , founded in , is the state's second largest university. In , Maryland, along with seven other states, mainly in the South, submitted plans to desegregate its state universities; Maryland's plans were approved by the U.

Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Two state-funded institutions, Morgan State University and St. The University of Maryland Global Campus is the largest public university in Maryland [] and one of the largest distance-learning institutions in the world.

John's College in Annapolis and Washington College in Chestertown , both private institutions, are the oldest colleges in the state and among the oldest in the country.

Other private institutions include Mount St. Many of the library systems have established formalized partnerships with other educational institutions in their counties and regions.

With two major metropolitan areas, Maryland has a number of major and minor professional sports franchises. Maryland enjoys considerable historical repute for the talented sports players of its past, including Cal Ripken Jr.

In , The Baltimore Sun published a list of Maryland's top ten athletes in the state's history. Other professional sports franchises in the state include five affiliated minor league baseball teams, one independent league baseball team, the Baltimore Blast indoor soccer team, two indoor football teams, three low-level outdoor soccer teams, and the Chesapeake Bayhawks of Major League Lacrosse.

Maryland is also home to one of the three races in horse racing's annual Triple Crown, the Preakness Stakes , which is run every spring at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore.

The Congressional Country Club has hosted three golf tournaments for the U. Open and a PGA Championship. The official state sport of Maryland, since , is jousting ; the official team sport since is lacrosse.

In , intending to promote physical fitness for all ages, walking became the official state exercise. Maryland is the first state with an official state exercise.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State of the United States of America. This article is about the State of Maryland. For other uses, see Maryland disambiguation.

State in the United States. Hoye-Crest [6] [7]. Atlantic Ocean [6]. See also: List of islands of Maryland and List of rivers of Maryland. This section needs additional citations for verification.

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Main article: History of Maryland. Main article: Province of Maryland. See also: Plundering Time.

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.

May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Maryland in the American Civil War. See also: List of counties in Maryland , List of incorporated places in Maryland , and List of census-designated places in Maryland.

See also: Maryland statistical areas. Largest cities or towns in Maryland U. Census populations. Black NH Asian NH 6.

Native American NH 0. Pacific Islander NH 0. Two or more races NH 2. Other NH 0. Hispanic Any Race Religion in Maryland [] religion percent Protestant.

See also: Business in Maryland , List of federal installations in Maryland , List of shopping malls in Maryland , and Maryland locations by per capita income.

Main articles: List of hospitals in Maryland and Maryland hospital payment system. See also: Aviation in Maryland and List of airports in Maryland.

After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution , driven by its seaports, railroad networks, and mass immigration from Europe.

Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown rapidly, to approximately six million residents, and it is among the most densely populated U.

As of [update] , Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. Maryland has an area of 12, The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia , is almost twice the size of Maryland [24, Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature.

It ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to gently rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region , and pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west.

Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania , on its west by West Virginia , on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean , and on its south, across the Potomac River , by West Virginia and Virginia.

The mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia , which sits on land that was originally part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.

The Commonwealth of Virginia gave land south of the Potomac, including the town of Alexandria, Virginia , however Virginia retroceded its portion in The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore.

Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County drained by the Youghiogheny River as part of the watershed of the Mississippi River , the eastern half of Worcester County which drains into Maryland's Atlantic coastal bays , and a small portion of the state's northeast corner which drains into the Delaware River watershed.

So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname that has been used by Massachusetts for decades.

Close to the small town of Hancock , in western Maryland, about two-thirds of the way across the state, less than 2 miles 3.

Portions of Maryland are included in various official and unofficial geographic regions. For example, the Delmarva Peninsula is composed of the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the entire state of Delaware , and the two counties that make up the Eastern Shore of Virginia , whereas the westernmost counties of Maryland are considered part of Appalachia.

Much of the Baltimore—Washington corridor lies just south of the Piedmont in the Coastal Plain, [24] though it straddles the border between the two regions.

Buildings in the state are not well-designed for earthquakes and can suffer damage easily. Maryland has no natural lakes, mostly due to the lack of glacial history in the area.

Maryland has shale formations containing natural gas, where fracking is theoretically possible. As is typical of states on the East Coast , Maryland's plant life is abundant and healthy.

Middle Atlantic coastal forests , typical of the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain , grow around Chesapeake Bay and on the Delmarva Peninsula. Moving west, a mixture of Northeastern coastal forests and Southeastern mixed forests cover the central part of the state.

These give way to Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests near the West Virginia border. Many foreign species are cultivated in the state, some as ornamentals, others as novelty species.

Included among these are the crape myrtle , Italian cypress , southern magnolia , live oak in the warmer parts of the state, [34] and even hardy palm trees in the warmer central and eastern parts of the state.

The state harbors a great number of white-tailed deer , especially in the woody and mountainous west of the state, and overpopulation can become a problem.

Mammals can be found ranging from the mountains in the west to the central areas and include black bears , [38] bobcats , [39] foxes, coyotes , [40] raccoons, and otters.

There is a population of rare wild feral horses found on Assateague Island. The purebred Chesapeake Bay Retriever dog was bred specifically for water sports, hunting and search and rescue in the Chesapeake area.

Maryland's reptile and amphibian population includes the diamondback terrapin turtle, which was adopted as the mascot of University of Maryland, College Park , as well as the threatened Eastern box turtle.

The state insect is the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly , although it is not as common in Maryland as it is in the southern edge of its range.

Maryland joined with neighboring states during the end of the 20th century to improve the health of the Chesapeake Bay.

The bay's aquatic life and seafood industry have been threatened by development and by fertilizer and livestock waste entering the bay.

In , Forbes. Maryland ranks 40th in total energy consumption nationwide, and it managed less toxic waste per capita than all but six states in Vermont has such a law, but no shale gas, and New York has such a ban, though it was made by executive order.

Maryland has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to water, and protection from colder weather due to downslope winds.

The eastern half of Maryland—which includes the cities of Ocean City , Salisbury , Annapolis , and the southern and eastern suburbs of Washington, D.

This region has a humid subtropical climate Köppen Cfa , with hot, humid summers and a short, mild to cool winter; it falls under USDA Hardiness zone 8a.

From the Cumberland Valley on westward, the climate begins to transition to a humid continental climate Köppen Dfa. In western Maryland, the higher elevations of Allegany and Garrett counties—including the cities of Cumberland , Frostburg , and Oakland —display more characteristics of the humid continental zone, due in part to elevation.

Precipitation in the state is characteristic of the East Coast. Nearly every part of Maryland receives 3. More often, Maryland gets the remnants of a tropical system which has already come ashore and released most of its energy.

Maryland averages around 30—40 days of thunderstorms a year, and averages around six tornado strikes annually. George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore — , sought a charter from King Charles I for the territory between Massachusetts to the north and Virginia to the immediate south.

The original capital of Maryland was St. Mary's County. Lord Baltimore's first settlers arrived in the new colony in March , with his younger brother Leonard Calvert — , as first provincial Governor of Maryland.

They made their first permanent settlement at St. Mary's City in what is now St. They purchased the site from the paramount chief of the region, who was eager to establish trade.

Mary's became the first capital of Maryland, and remained so for 60 years until More settlers soon followed. Their tobacco crops were successful and quickly made the new colony profitable.

However, given the incidence of malaria , yellow fever and typhoid , life expectancy in Maryland was about 10 years less than in New England. Maryland was founded for the purpose of providing religious toleration of England's Roman Catholic minority.

In a number of Puritans left Virginia for Maryland and founded Providence now called Annapolis on the western shore of the upper Chesapeake Bay. The two years from to when Claiborne and his Puritan associates held sway were known as "The Plundering Time".

They captured Jesuit priests, imprisoned them, then sent them back to England. In Leonard Calvert returned with troops, recaptured St.

Mary's City, and restored order. The House of Delegates passed the "Act concerning Religion" in granting religious liberty to all Trinitarian Christians.

In the Puritans revolted against the proprietary government. The Puritan revolutionary government persecuted Maryland Catholics during its reign, known as the "plundering time".

Mobs burned down all the original Catholic churches of southern Maryland. The Puritan rule lasted until when the Calvert family and Lord Baltimore regained proprietary control and re-enacted the Toleration Act.

In , the Maryland General Assembly prohibited Catholics from operating schools, limited the corporate ownership of property to hamper religious orders from expanding or supporting themselves, and encouraged the conversion of Catholic children.

This state of affairs lasted until after the American Revolutionary War — Wealthy Catholic planters built chapels on their land to practice their religion in relative secrecy.

Into the 18th century, individual priests and lay leaders claimed Maryland farms belonging to the Jesuits as personal property and bequeathed them in order to evade the legal restrictions on religious organizations' owning property.

The royal charter granted Maryland the land north of the Potomac River up to the 40th parallel. A problem arose when Charles II granted a charter for Pennsylvania.

The grant defined Pennsylvania's southern border as identical to Maryland's northern border, the 40th parallel.

But the grant indicated that Charles II and William Penn assumed the 40th parallel would pass close to New Castle, Delaware when it falls north of Philadelphia , the site of which Penn had already selected for his colony's capital city.

Negotiations ensued after the problem was discovered in A compromise proposed by Charles II in was undermined by Penn's receiving the additional grant of what is now Delaware.

The border dispute with Pennsylvania led to Cresap's War in the s. Hostilities erupted in and escalated through the first half of the decade, culminating in the deployment of military forces by Maryland in and by Pennsylvania in The armed phase of the conflict ended in May with the intervention of King George II, who compelled the negotiation of a cease-fire.

A provisional agreement had been established in Negotiations continued until a final agreement was signed in The agreement defined the border between Maryland and Pennsylvania as the line of latitude now known as the Mason—Dixon line.

Most of the English colonists arrived in Maryland as indentured servants , and had to serve a several years' term as laborers to pay for their passage.

Mixed-race children born to white mothers were considered free by the principle of partus sequitur ventrem , by which children took the social status of their mothers, a principle of slave law that was adopted throughout the colonies, following Virginia in During the colonial era, families of free people of color were formed most often by unions of white women and African men.

Many of the free black families migrated to Delaware, where land was cheaper. The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco as the commodity crop.

Maryland was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.

Near the end of the American Revolutionary War — , on February 2, , Maryland became the last and 13th state to approve the ratification of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union , first proposed in and adopted by the Second Continental Congress in , which brought into being the United States as a united, sovereign and national state.

It also became the seventh state admitted to the Union after ratifying the new federal Constitution in In December , Maryland donated land selected by first President George Washington to the federal government for the creation of the new national capital of Washington, D.

The land was provided along the north shore of the Potomac River from Montgomery and Prince George's counties, as well as from Fairfax County and Alexandria on the south shore of the Potomac in Virginia ; however, the land donated by the Commonwealth of Virginia was later returned to that state by the District of Columbia retrocession in Influenced by a changing economy, revolutionary ideals, and preaching by ministers, numerous planters in Maryland freed their slaves in the 20 years after the Revolutionary War.

During this bombardment the song " Star Spangled Banner " was written by Francis Scott Key ; it was later adopted as the national anthem.

The National Road U. Hwy 40 today was authorized in and ran from Baltimore to St. Louis—the first federal highway.

It opened its first section of track for regular operation in between Baltimore and Ellicott City, [78] and in it became the first rail line to reach the Ohio River from the eastern seaboard.

The state remained with the Union during the Civil War, [80] due in significant part to demographics and Federal intervention. Governor Thomas Holliday Hicks suspended the state legislature, and to help ensure the election of a new pro-union governor and legislature, President Abraham Lincoln had a number of its pro-slavery politicians arrested, including the Mayor of Baltimore, George William Brown ; suspended several civil liberties, including habeas corpus ; and ordered artillery placed on Federal Hill overlooking Baltimore.

Historians debate the constitutionality of these wartime actions, and the suspension of civil liberties was later deemed illegal by the U.

Supreme Court. In April Federal units and state regiments were attacked as they marched through Baltimore, sparking the Baltimore riot of , the first bloodshed in the Civil War.

Although a tactical draw, the battle was considered a strategic Union victory and a turning point of the war. A new state constitution in abolished slavery and Maryland was first recognized as a "Free State" in that context.

The Democratic Party rapidly regained power in the state from Republicans. Democrats replaced the Constitution of with the Constitution of Following the end of Reconstruction in , Democrats devised means of disfranchising blacks, initially by physical intimidation and voter fraud, later by constitutional amendments and laws.

Blacks and immigrants, however, resisted Democratic Party disfranchisement efforts in the state. Compared to some other states, blacks were better established both before and after the civil war.

Nearly half the black population was free before the war, and some had accumulated property. Half the population lived in cities.

Literacy was high among blacks and, as Democrats crafted means to exclude them, suffrage campaigns helped reach blacks and teach them how to resist.

Baltimore grew significantly during the Industrial Revolution , due in large part to its seaport and good railroad connections, attracting European immigrant labor.

Many manufacturing businesses were established in the Baltimore area after the Civil War. Baltimore businessmen, including Johns Hopkins , Enoch Pratt , George Peabody , and Henry Walters , founded notable city institutions that bear their names, including a university, library, music school and art museum.

Cumberland was Maryland's second-largest city in the 19th century. Nearby supplies of natural resources along with railroads fostered its growth into a major manufacturing center.

The Progressive Era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries brought political reforms. In a series of laws passed between and , reformers worked for standard state-issued ballots rather than those distributed and marked by the parties ; obtained closed voting booths to prevent party workers from "assisting" voters; initiated primary elections to keep party bosses from selecting candidates; and had candidates listed without party symbols, which discouraged the illiterate from participating.

These measures worked against ill-educated whites and blacks. Blacks resisted such efforts, with suffrage groups conducting voter education.

Blacks defeated three efforts to disfranchise them, making alliances with immigrants to resist various Democratic campaigns. The Progressive Era also brought reforms in working conditions for Maryland's labor force.

In the state regulated conditions in mines ; outlawed child laborers under the age of 12; mandated compulsory school attendance; and enacted the nation's first workers' compensation law.

The workers' compensation law was overturned in the courts, but was redrafted and finally enacted in The Great Baltimore Fire of burned for more than 30 hours, destroying 1, buildings and spanning 70 city blocks.

More than 1, firefighters worked to bring the blaze under control. Existing facilities, including Fort McHenry , were greatly expanded. After Georgia congressman William D.

Upshaw criticized Maryland openly in for not passing Prohibition laws, Baltimore Sun editor Hamilton Owens coined the "Free State" nickname for Maryland in that context, which was popularized by H.

Mencken in a series of newspaper editorials. Maryland's urban and rural communities had different experiences during the Great Depression.

The " Bonus Army " marched through the state in on its way to Washington, D. Maryland instituted its first ever income tax in to generate revenue for schools and welfare.

Passenger and freight steamboat service, once important throughout Chesapeake Bay and its many tributary rivers, ended in Baltimore was a major war production center during World War II.

The biggest operations were Bethlehem Steel 's Fairfield Yard, which built Liberty ships ; and Glenn Martin , an aircraft manufacturer. Maryland experienced population growth following World War II.

Beginning in the s, as suburban growth took hold around Washington DC and Baltimore, the state began to take on a more mid-Atlantic culture as opposed to the traditionally Southern and Tidewater culture that previously dominated most of the state.

Agricultural tracts gave way to residential communities, some of them carefully planned such as Columbia , St. Charles , and Montgomery Village.

Concurrently the Interstate Highway System was built throughout the state, most notably I , I , and the Capital Beltway , altering travel patterns.

In the eastern and western halves of Maryland were linked for the first time by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge , which replaced a nearby ferry service.

Maryland's regions experienced economic changes following WWII. Heavy manufacturing declined in Baltimore. In Maryland's four westernmost counties, industrial, railroad, and coal mining jobs declined.

On the lower Eastern Shore , family farms were bought up by major concerns and large-scale poultry farms and vegetable farming became prevalent.

In Southern Maryland, tobacco farming nearly vanished due to suburban development and a state tobacco buy-out program in the s. In an effort to reverse depopulation due to the loss of working-class industries, Baltimore initiated urban renewal projects in the s with Charles Center and the Baltimore World Trade Center.

Some resulted in the break-up of intact residential neighborhoods, producing social volatility, and some older residential areas around the harbor have had units renovated and have become popular with new populations.

This includes a natural increase since the last census of , , births minus , deaths and an increase due to net migration of , people into the state.

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of , people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 13, people.

The center of population of Maryland is located on the county line between Anne Arundel County and Howard County , in the unincorporated community of Jessup.

Maryland's history as a border state has led it to exhibit characteristics of both the Northern and the Southern regions of the United States.

As of , Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Spanish including Spanish Creole is the second most spoken language in Maryland, after English. The third and fourth most spoken languages are French including Patois and Cajun and Chinese.

Most of the population of Maryland lives in the central region of the state, in the Baltimore metropolitan area and Washington metropolitan area , both of which are part of the Baltimore—Washington metropolitan area.

The majority of Maryland's population is concentrated in the cities and suburbs surrounding Washington, D. Maryland's capital city, Annapolis , is one exception to this pattern, since it lies along the banks of the Severn River , close to where it empties into the Chesapeake Bay.

The Eastern Shore is less populous and more rural, as are the counties of western Maryland. The two westernmost counties of Maryland, Allegany and Garrett , are mountainous and sparsely populated, resembling West Virginia and Appalachia more than they do the rest of the state.

Southern Maryland is still somewhat rural, but suburbanization from Washington, D. In the Census Bureau reported Maryland's population as African Americans form a sizable portion of the state's population, nearly 30 percent in New residents of African descent include 20th-century and later immigrants from Nigeria , particularly of the Igbo and Yoruba tribes.

Many immigrants from the Horn of Africa have settled in Maryland, with large communities existing in the suburbs of Washington, D.

The Greater Washington area has the largest population of Ethiopians outside of Africa. Irish American populations can be found throughout the Baltimore area , [] and the Northern and Eastern suburbs of Washington D.

A large percentage of the population of the Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland are descendants of British American ancestry. The Eastern Shore was settled by Protestants, chiefly Methodist and the southern counties were initially settled by English Catholics.

Western and northern Maryland have large German-American populations. More recent European immigrants of the late 19th and early 20th century settled first in Baltimore, attracted to its industrial jobs.

Many of their ethnic Italian , Polish , Czech , Lithuanian , and Greek descendants still live in the area.

The shares of European immigrants born in Eastern Europe increased significantly between and Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia, many immigrants from Eastern Europe came to the United States—12 percent of whom currently reside in Maryland.

Salvadorans are the largest Hispanic group in Maryland. Other Hispanic groups with significant populations in the state include Mexicans and Puerto Ricans and Hondurans.

Though the Salvadoran population is more concentrated in the area around Washington, D. Maryland has one of the most diverse Hispanic populations in the country, with significant populations from various Caribbean and Central American nations.

Asian Americans are concentrated in the suburban counties surrounding Washington, D. Numerous Indian Americans live across the state, especially in central Maryland.

Attracting educated Asians and Africans to the professional jobs in the region, Maryland has the fifth-largest proportions of racial minorities in the country.

In , were counted as foreign born, which represents mainly people from Latin America and Asia. About four percent are undocumented immigrants.

According to The Williams Institute's analysis of the U. Census, 12, same-sex couples are living in Maryland, representing 5. As of , non-Hispanic white Americans were By , minorities are projected to become the majority of voting eligible residents of Maryland.

Maryland has been historically prominent to American Catholic tradition because the English colony of Maryland was intended by George Calvert as a haven for English Catholics.

Baltimore was the seat of the first Catholic bishop in the U. Elizabeth Ann Seton. Georgetown University , the first Catholic University, was founded in in what was then part of Maryland.

Among the immigrants of the 19th and 20th century from eastern and southern Europe were many Catholics. Demographically, both Protestants and those identifying no religion are more numerous than Catholics.

According to Pew Research Center , 69 percent of Maryland's population identifies themselves as Christian.

Mary's , Garrett , and Cecil counties. Two of Maryland's counties, Howard and Montgomery, are the second and eleventh wealthiest counties in the nation respectively.

Maryland has the most millionaires per capita in , with a ratio of 7. As of February , the state's unemployment rate was 4.

Maryland's economy benefits from the state's close proximity to the federal government in Washington, D. In addition, a number of educational and medical research institutions are located in the state.

In fact, the various components of The Johns Hopkins University and its medical research facilities are now the largest single employer in the Baltimore area.

Altogether, white collar technical and administrative workers comprise 25 percent of Maryland's labor force , [ citation needed ] attributable in part to nearby Maryland being a part of the Washington Metro Area where the federal government office employment is relatively high.

Manufacturing, while large in dollar value, is highly diversified with no sub-sector contributing over 20 percent of the total.

Typical forms of manufacturing include electronics, computer equipment, and chemicals. The once mighty primary metals sub-sector, which at one time included what was then the largest steel factory in the world at Sparrows Point , still exists, but is pressed with foreign competition, bankruptcies , and mergers.

Mining other than construction materials is virtually limited to coal, which is located in the mountainous western part of the state.

The brownstone quarries in the east, which gave Baltimore and Washington much of their characteristic architecture in the midth century, were once a predominant natural resource.

Historically, there used to be small gold-mining operations in Maryland, some near Washington, but these no longer exist.

One major service activity is transportation, centered on the Port of Baltimore and its related rail and trucking access. The port ranked 17th in the U.

The port also receives several different brands of imported motor vehicles and is the number one auto port in the U.

Baltimore City is among the top 15 largest ports in the nation, [] and was one of six major U. Its computer industries are some of the most sophisticated in the United States, and the federal government has invested heavily in the area.

Maryland is home to several large military bases and scores of high level government jobs. Maryland has a large food-production sector.

A large component of this is commercial fishing , centered in the Chesapeake Bay, but also including activity off the short Atlantic seacoast.

The largest catches by species are the blue crab , oysters , striped bass , and menhaden. The Bay also has overwintering waterfowl in its wildlife refuges.

The waterfowl support a tourism sector of sportsmen. Maryland has large areas of fertile agricultural land in its coastal and Piedmont zones, though this land use is being encroached upon by urbanization.

Agriculture is oriented to dairy farming especially in foothill and piedmont areas for nearby large city milksheads plus specialty perishable horticulture crops, such as cucumbers , watermelons , sweet corn , tomatoes , muskmelons , squash , and peas Source:USDA Crop Profiles.

The southern counties of the western shoreline of Chesapeake Bay are warm enough to support a tobacco cash crop zone, which has existed since early Colonial times but declined greatly after a state government buyout in the s.

There is also a large automated chicken -farming sector in the state's southeastern part; Salisbury is home to Perdue Farms.

Maryland's food-processing plants are the most significant type of manufacturing by value in the state. Maryland is a major center for life sciences research and development.

With more than biotechnology companies located there, Maryland is the fourth-largest nexus in this field in the United States.

Maryland is home to defense contractor Emergent BioSolutions , which manufactures and provides an anthrax vaccine to U.

Tourism is popular in Maryland, with tourists visiting the city of Baltimore, the beaches of the Eastern Shore, and the nature of western Maryland, as well as many passing through on the way to Washington, D.

Ocean City on the Atlantic Coast has been a popular beach destination in summer, particularly since the Chesapeake Bay Bridge was built in connecting the Eastern Shore to the more populated Maryland cities.

Maryland also has several sites of interest to military history, given Maryland's role in the American Civil War and in the War of Other attractions include the historic and picturesque towns along the Chesapeake Bay , such as Saint Mary's , Maryland's first colonial settlement and original capital.

Maryland has experimented with healthcare payment reforms, notably beginning in the s with an all-payer rate setting program regulated by the Health Services Cost Review Commission.

The Maryland Department of Transportation oversees most transportation in the state through its various administration-level agencies.

I , fully contained within Anne Arundel County and the shortest There are also several auxiliary Interstate highways in Maryland. Among them are two beltways encircling the major cities of the region: I , the McKeldin Baltimore Beltway, which encircles Baltimore; and a portion of I , the Capital Beltway, which encircles Washington, D.

I , which connects the Frederick area with Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia through major suburbs to the northwest of Washington, is a major commuter route and is as wide as fourteen lanes at points.

Construction of the ICC was a major part of the campaign platform of former Governor Robert Ehrlich , who was in office from until , and of Governor Martin O'Malley , who succeeded him.

The only other airports with commercial service are at Hagerstown and Salisbury. The Maryland suburbs of Washington, D.

The College Park Airport is the nation's oldest, founded in , and is still used. Wilbur Wright trained military aviators at this location.

The WMATA 's Metrorail rapid transit and Metrobus local bus systems the 2nd and 6th busiest in the nation of their respective modes provide service in Montgomery and Prince George's counties and connect them to Washington D.

The Maryland Transit Administration often abbreviated as "MTA Maryland" , a state agency part of the Maryland Department of Transportation also provides transit services within the state.

Baltimore's Light RailLink and Metro SubwayLink systems serve its densely populated inner-city and the surrounding suburbs.

The MTA also serves the city and its suburbs with its local bus service the 9th largest system in the nation.

Freight rail transport is handled principally by two Class I railroads , as well as several smaller regional and local carriers. Major rail yards are located in Baltimore and Cumberland, [] with an intermodal terminal rail, truck and marine in Baltimore.

The government of Maryland is conducted according to the state constitution. The government of Maryland, like the other 49 state governments , has exclusive authority over matters that lie entirely within the state's borders, except as limited by the Constitution of the United States.

Power in Maryland is divided among three branches of government: executive , legislative , and judicial.

Maryland's governor is unique in the United States as the office is vested with significant authority in budgeting. The legislature may not increase the governor's proposed budget expenditures.

Unlike many other states, significant autonomy is granted to many of Maryland's counties. Most of the business of government is conducted in Annapolis , the state capital.

Elections for governor and most statewide offices, as well as most county elections, are held in midterm-election years even-numbered years not divisible by four.

The intermediate appellate court is known as the Court of Special Appeals and the state supreme court is the Court of Appeals. The appearance of the judges of the Maryland Court of Appeals is unique; Maryland is the only state whose judges wear red robes.

Local officials set the rates and the revenue is returned to the local governments quarterly. The top income tax bracket of 9. Maryland's state sales tax is six percent.

Since before the Civil War, Maryland's elections have been largely controlled by the Democrats , which account for State elections are dominated by Baltimore and the populous suburban counties bordering Washington, D.

As of July , [] sixty-six percent of the state's population resides in these six jurisdictions, most of which contain large, traditionally Democratic voting bloc s : African Americans in Baltimore City and Prince George's, federal employees in Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and Montgomery, and postgraduates in Montgomery.

The remainder of the state, particularly Western Maryland and the Eastern Shore , is more supportive of Republicans.

In , Maryland was one of six states to vote for Jimmy Carter. In , former Governor Robert Ehrlich was the first Republican to be elected to that office in four decades, and after one term lost his seat to Baltimore Mayor and Democrat Martin O'Malley.

Ehrlich ran again for governor in , losing again to O'Malley. The election brought no change in the pattern of Democratic dominance.

Steele , with 55 percent of the vote, against Steele's 44 percent. While Republicans usually win more counties, by piling up large margins in the west and east, they are also usually swamped by the more densely populated and heavily Democratic Baltimore—Washington axis.

While McCain won most of the western and eastern counties by margins of 2-to-1 or more, he was almost completely shut out in the larger counties surrounding Baltimore and Washington; every large county except Anne Arundel went for Obama.

From to , U. In addition, Hoyer served as House Minority Whip from to and to Mary's counties in southern Maryland. In , Republicans won control of most counties.

The Democratic Party remained in control of eight county governments including Baltimore. In , Hogan was reelected to a second term of office.

In February , Attorney General Doug Gansler issued an opinion stating that Maryland law should honor same-sex marriages from out of state.

At the time, the state Supreme Court wrote a decision upholding marriage discrimination. On March 1, , Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley signed the freedom to marry bill into law after it passed in the state legislature.

Immediately after, opponents of same-sex marriage began collecting signatures to overturn the law.

The law was scheduled to face a referendum, as Question 6, in the November election. In May , Maryland's Court of Appeals ruled that the state will recognize marriages of same-sex couples who married out-of-state, no matter the outcome of the November election.

Same-sex couples began marrying in Maryland on January 1, A well known newspaper is The Baltimore Sun. The most populous areas are served by either Baltimore or Washington, D.

The Eastern Shore is served primarily by broadcast media based around the Delmarva Peninsula ; the northeastern section receives both Baltimore and Philadelphia stations.

Garrett County, which is mountainous, is served by stations from Pittsburgh , and requires cable or satellite for reception. Education Week ranked Maryland 1 in its nationwide — Quality Counts reports.

The Maryland General Assembly has given the Superintendent and State Board autonomy to make educationally related decisions, limiting its own influence on the day-to-day functions of public education.

Each county and county-equivalent in Maryland has a local Board of Education charged with running the public schools in that particular jurisdiction.

Maryland has a broad range of private primary and secondary schools. Many of these are affiliated with various religious sects, including parochial schools of the Catholic Church , Quaker schools, Seventh-day Adventist schools, and Jewish schools.

In , Maryland law was changed to allow for the creation of publicly funded charter schools, although the charter schools must be approved by their local Board of Education and are not exempt from state laws on education, including collective bargaining laws.

In , the state led the entire country in the percentage of students passing Advanced Placement examinations. This marks the first year that Maryland earned this honor.

Maryland has several historic and renowned private colleges and universities, the most prominent of which is Johns Hopkins University , founded in with a grant from Baltimore entrepreneur Johns Hopkins.

The first public university in the state is the University of Maryland, Baltimore , which was founded in and contains the University of Maryland's only public academic health , human services, and one of two law centers the other being the University of Baltimore School of Law.

Seven professional and graduate schools train the majority of the state's physicians, nurses, dentists, lawyers, social workers, and pharmacists.

Towson University , founded in , is the state's second largest university. In , Maryland, along with seven other states, mainly in the South, submitted plans to desegregate its state universities; Maryland's plans were approved by the U.

Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Two state-funded institutions, Morgan State University and St.

The University of Maryland Global Campus is the largest public university in Maryland [] and one of the largest distance-learning institutions in the world.

John's College in Annapolis and Washington College in Chestertown , both private institutions, are the oldest colleges in the state and among the oldest in the country.

Other private institutions include Mount St. Many of the library systems have established formalized partnerships with other educational institutions in their counties and regions.

With two major metropolitan areas, Maryland has a number of major and minor professional sports franchises. Maryland enjoys considerable historical repute for the talented sports players of its past, including Cal Ripken Jr.

In , The Baltimore Sun published a list of Maryland's top ten athletes in the state's history. Other professional sports franchises in the state include five affiliated minor league baseball teams, one independent league baseball team, the Baltimore Blast indoor soccer team, two indoor football teams, three low-level outdoor soccer teams, and the Chesapeake Bayhawks of Major League Lacrosse.

Maryland is also home to one of the three races in horse racing's annual Triple Crown, the Preakness Stakes , which is run every spring at Pimlico Race Course in Baltimore.

The Congressional Country Club has hosted three golf tournaments for the U. Open and a PGA Championship. The official state sport of Maryland, since , is jousting ; the official team sport since is lacrosse.

In , intending to promote physical fitness for all ages, walking became the official state exercise.

Maryland is the first state with an official state exercise. This article is about the State of Maryland. For other uses, see Maryland disambiguation.

Hoye-Crest [6] [7]. Atlantic Ocean [6]. See also: List of islands of Maryland and List of rivers of Maryland. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: History of Maryland. Main article: Province of Maryland.

See also: Plundering Time. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.

Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Maryland in the American Civil War.

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